Elizabeth Ordoñez‐Quintana1 | Ivan Salmeron1 | David Chavez‐Flores1 | Victor Ramos1 | Nestor Gutierrez1 | Lourdes Morales‐Oyervides2 | Efren Delgado3 | Ebenezer Kwofie4 | Michael Ngadi4 | Samuel B. Perez‐Vega1
1School of Chemical Science, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico
2Chemical Engineering Department, Autonomous University of Coahuila, Saltillo, Mexico
3Department of Family & Consumer Sciences, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM, USA
4Bioresource Engineering Department, McGill University, Ste‐Anne‐de‐Bellevue, Quebec, Canada
This research explores the effect of temperature, pressure, static time, dynamic time, co‐solvent, pretreatment, and particle size on the supercritical/subcritical extraction of ursolic acid (UA), polyphenols, and their antioxidant activity. Experiments were controlled by a screen‐out (Plackett–Burman) statistical methodology. From the results, it could be observed that similar conditions benefited the extraction of UA and polyphenols. The highest yield of UA (6,117.2 μg/g) was obtained when ethanol (25% w/w), particle size (>250 μm), and temperature (60°C) were at their high boundaries. Phloridzin and epicatechin were identified as the most abundant polyphenols, showing concentrations of 531.4 and 288.3 μg/g, respectively. A maximum oxygen radical absorbance capacity of 113.5 μmol TE/g and total polyphenolic capacity (TPC) of 1.7 mg GAE/g were obtained. As a result, higher yields were strongly related to the effect of variables on diffusion and solubility, leading to a more efficient and sustainable process.